Transportation

Sustainable public transportation
and logistics system is the most effective land and energy use to cause the least pollution. It is necessary to cover these points: accessibility, social equality, ecological sustainability, health and safety, people participation, economy, information technology, and support.
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Mahidol University has begun sustainable public transportation and logistics system management since the master plan in 2008. This master plan has developed the guidelines in physical development to promote learning environment which its physical characteristics should be harmoniously respond to society and environment, safe, promote well-being and pollution emission to environment. The university has changed the way of using roads for large vehicles to be for pedestrians and bicycles which is an environmental-friendly vehicle, reduces fossil fuel vehicles use in order that students, staff and public can be beneficiary to do walking exercise and biking as well as energy efficiency public transportation in the university. This means an increase in efficiency in energy fuel which leads to less consumption of fuel in combustion. The university supports clean energy vehicles. There is a tram service covering transportation in the university campus. It is accessible to everyone with free of charge. Shuttle bus services which are vehicles to promote carpooling aim to reduce fuel energy in commuting staff and students to the other campus. Jakka Center Services is to promote environmental-friendly vehicles use. It is a one-stop service center to provide bicycle services. This is consistent to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Target 3: Good Health and Well-being; Target 7: Affordable and Clean Energy; Target 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities; and Target 13: Climate Action.
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Traffic Safety
Traffic problems in Mahidol University do not only make difficulty to vehicles users, but they also cause road accidents and environmental pollution, particularly in rush hours. Even though Mahidol University is strict in speed limit, there are many people violated the regulations and parking in restricted areas. The parking spaces problems have still occurred and impacted on traffic in those areas, for example, parking in restricted areas, double parking, and disorganized in parking spaces which caused congestion and air pollution. Staff and students need to commute from their accommodation to the university by their private vehicles with the limited spaces in parking and roads. This problem has been becoming more severe. Mahidol University realizes that traffic problems are important; therefore, there is a campaign to encourage people to ride bicycles more. Jakka Center has opened for bicycle loan and has provided electric tram to decrease the number of vehicles in the university. Mahidol University ultimately uses traffic signs, warning signs, and announcements about traffic regulations in the university’s areas or all gates opened in rush hours. There will be security management from 7:00-9:00 a.m. for traffic control and supervision in the areas including traffic manual to communicate the community to understand traffic rules and regulations in the university areas and to collect all of traffic data, a safe driving campaign and statistics of road accident in the university. There are goals setting to reduce road accident of 5 percent in each year.
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Mahidol University has a project
called Blue Street to simulate the road routes for traffic rules learning and safety in 2018. The road routes have been linked to playground and Salaya Park under the supervision of National Institute for Child and Family Development. The objectives of this project are to be a learning resource for children and youths in safety behavior. There are traffic signs along the routes for children to learn traffic rules and road safety on the roads and pathways including people carefully using roads in the university. This project expects that young generation will understand more in safety.
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Walking Street
Mahidol University, Salaya Campus’s master plan in 2008 aimed to have physical development to promote learning environment in the university which its physical characteristics should harmoniously respond to society and environment. The university has focused on using roads for pedestrians and bikes instead of large vehicles. This is to promote the culture of natural caring under the policy “A Promised Place to Leave and Learn with Nature” by planning in traffic system development, road system, parking spaces, bicycle lane, and walking lane system to be consistent with the concept of Green Campus. Those important keys are
      - Safety
      - Tidiness
      - Environmentally Sound
      - Community Satisfaction
There are projects of main roads development around the learning zones. The areas of 164,017 square meter have been changed to walking lane and bicycle lane. The space of 21,864 square meter becomes bicycle lane for students and staff to exercise by biking, or running on the track. This is to increase an opportunity to meet and greet. Green lifestyle is a new focus to build new spaces for creative activities, for example, walking street with entertainment and diversity.
University life
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Concept Design
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Importance of the main traffic roads having three lanes on each side, in total of six lanes is reduced to three lanes without a street isle. The previous road lanes have been adjusted to the bicycle lane and walking lane surrounded with shady landscape. They are advantages of trees and flowers lining as a separator between walking streets and traffic roads for users’ safety.
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Components of routes, for example, bench, tram station, bicycle rack are located in shading areas to blend with the landscape, be well-organized and to not block the ways or make difficulty to street users. This promotes diverse activities in common areas, adding liveliness to it.
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Pathway surface and street furniture design should consider to the universal design which has physical characteristics to facilitate all groups of street users, for example, smooth surface for wheelchairs, a sign or different type of surfaces at the ramp intersection, suitable height of bench, and spaces for wheelchairs.
Ramp and Cover way
Mahidol University focused on a good physical environment. Facilities have been designed based on the universal design to support students, staff, and public including disabled who all visit the university’s areas to be equally convenient and accessible to basic services. This is consistent to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Target 3: Good health and well-being, Target 10: Reduced Inequalities, and Target 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities. Mahidol University facilitates all basic facilities to disabled according to the Cabinet resolution dated on 19 May 2009. Those facilities are parking space, ramp, sign, restroom, and service information center. The public center buildings are Office of the President, Mahidol Learning Center: MLC, Prince Mahidol Hall, and Sirividhaya Building including tram station and bus terminal.

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The common traffic areas have been facilitated with these facilities.
Main pathway of the main road surrounding study area and cover way
Pathway: the width of pathway is 1.50-5.50 meters with smooth surface, non-slip, no barrier which may be harm to disabled. Pathway and bicycle lane on the main roads have benches along the way on both sides to share rest areas for public and disabled. Those rest areas have enough spaces for wheelchairs without traffic road blockage.
Ramp: it is designed to have different surface, for example, crossing lanes, non-slip surface. Ramp width is at least 0.90 meter and maximum slope at 1:12 which follows the Ministerial regulations requirement.
Different surface texture: floor on the pathway is different in surface texture and color which are different from the nearby areas, for example, up and down on the ramp, intersection or turning corner, slope, tram stop station. In addition, different surfaces for crossing lanes for disabled are available to warn people with vision impairment on the position of ramp, intersection, turning corner, and crossing lanes.
Signs and traffic symbols: There are signs and traffic symbols signs on pathways which their height from the ground at least 2.00 meter for head protection. Those signs are aligned on the same line to avoid pathway blockage. There are symbols for disabled on the ramps and crossing lanes.
Saphan Dao
It is a cover way and overpass across Borommaratchachonnani Road to connect the areas of two sides of the university which are Ratchasuda College and study areas. The width of the bridge is 2.30 meter with smooth surface which is no obstacles for disabled. Intersection and turning corner have different surface for those with visual impairment. Reflection mirrors are installed for hearing impaired people to see the traffic. Maximum slope of up-and-down areas of overpass across Borommaratchachonnani Road is 1:12 and width of 6.00 meter with cover way more than 1.50 meter and two-sided railing following the Ministerial regulations requirement.

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Electric Tram
Mahidol University has public electric tram for travelling in the university. Tram station is the center of public electric tram services which everyone can access. This helps reduce pollution and promotes sustainable clean energy. The 15 electric tram has 28 seats, divided into four service lines which the main lines covering all areas of the university. Their decoration is colorful and outstanding, is it is free of charge.
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The university usually provides services on 15 electric trams divided into four lines (Green, Blue, Red, and Yellow). These tram lines cover all of Salaya campus. The services are daily from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. The details of tram service schedules are below.
Green Line
Baan Mahidol – Chaofaa Garden – Faculty of Science– Mahidol Court– Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities– International College – Office of the President– Faculty of Engineering – Faculty of Information and Communication Technology – Library – Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies– Institute of Nutrition– College of Sports Science and Technology– Sport Building (Gym) – Baan Mahidol
Blue Line
Baan Mahidol– Environmental Conservation Building– Parking 4– Faculty of Veterinary – National Institute for Child and Family Development– Condominium –Soccer Filed 3 – Faculty of Liberal Arts– Faculty of Physical Therapy– Ramathibodi School of Nursing– Faculty of Medical Technology–Institute for Population and Social Research– Institute of Molecular Biosciences– Gate 3 – Office of the President – ASEAN Institute for Health Development – Thai House – Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia – Parking 2 – Sireeruckhachati Nature Learning Park – Parking 5 – Baan Mahidol
Red Line
Baan Mahidol – Chaofaa Garden– Faculty of Science– Artist Residency – College of Music – Parking 2 – Mahidol Court – Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities – International College – Office of the President – Faculty of Engineering – Organic Farm – Ramathibodi School of Nursing – Ramathibodi Nursing Student Dormitory– Condominium – National Institute for Child and Family Development – College of Religious Studies – Petanque Court– Sport Building (Gym) – Baan Mahidol
Yellow Line
Mahidol Learning Center: MLC – Faculty of Science – Artist Residency – College of Music – Parking 2 – Mahidol Court– Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities– International College – Office of the President – ASEAN Institute for Health Development – Thai House– Salaya Center – Parking 2 – Mahidol Learning Center: MLC
Public Bus
In 2018, the university has a policy “Tram and Bus” to effectively facilitate travelling around divisions of the university to students, staff, and public. There is a support in carpooling to reduce fuel consumption. There is also public bus between the two campuses of the university provided to students and staff. In present, the routes of bus have been changed according to the policy development in emissions reduction. The shuttle bus services length has been changed from ten kilometer down to maximum of two kilometer. There is a one-stop service center for shuttle bus services. Tram will be used to connect to the bus center. This is to reduce emissions and fuel expenses.
Mahidol University has a total of 17 shuttle bus in present. Each bus has a maximum capacity of 40 seats. These shuttle buses are to provide pick-up and drop-off services to staff and students travelling between the campuses with free of charge. There is also a service called Salaya Link which provides pick-up and drop-off services to staff and students between the university and Bang Waek BTS station.
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Bus Services Statistics
Cycling : Mahidol Lifestyle
Mahidol University organized the project for Bike Path, Mahidol Way since 2008 until now. This project is to support walking and biking as the main travelling way, to reduce carbon from engine, and to promote physical and mental well-being, disease prevention, social connection development and development in students and staff’s better quality of life including the local community under the name of “Jakka Center”. The Jakka Center is the one-stop service for bicycle center to maintain and loan, and the university’s landscape development for biking, biking activities, and biking courses. These activities are held in Mahidol University, Salaya Campus.
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Since its establishment in 2009, Jakka Center is the one-stop service for bicycle which includes maintenance, wheel pumping, spare bicycle parts and public loan for trial for free. There are more than 300 bicycles which 80 percent of them are ready to use.
Landscape development for biking starting in 2009 until now is changing traffic roads to be the university’s activity areas with over 2.4 kilometer of length. This is the main road with trees planted along for shady areas and carbon absorption. Vehicles are not allowed to enter these areas. The second main road has been appropriately adapted to the areas, for example, traffic roads and bicycle lanes. There are activities organizing for students to paint bicycle lanes once faded. This is to cultivate the values of bicycles to the university. In addition, there are more spaces for bicycle racks around the university which are accessible, convenient, and safe.
Not only have the basic physical and services, but there also are bicycle activities, for example, Rally cooperating with the local communities in 2015-2018, basic as an extra curriculum in 2017 to present, and the registration of private bicycle for data collection 2021. This data will be used for bicycle management and safety improvement to support bicycle use.
Bicycle services have continuously been in operation with the Jakka Center as a one-stop service in selling and buying, maintenance, and 300 public bicycles services to students, staff and public from 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. every day, free of charge, including security services.
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According to the figure of monthly public bicycle used above, it was higher during the semester when compared to the break (April-July). This indicates that students were likely to use bicycles more. This data also includes data of private bicycle use. After COVID-19 pandemic, the university is not allowed to use public bicycle to reduce high risk exposure and spread of the disease.